使研究科學化

(Making Reasearch Scientific)

心理學的研究,如同其他領域的研究,為了被認定是科學的,需要符合嚴格的標準。

*可複製的

*可驗證的

*精確的

*儉約的

(Psychological research, like researchinother fileds, must meet certain criteria in order to be considered scientific. Research must be:

*Replicable

*Falsifiable

*Precise

*Parsimonious)

  

研究必須可被複製的

(Research must be Replicable)

當其他人可以重複進行並得到相同結果時研究是可被複製的。當心理學家報告他們研究中的發現,他們也詳細地描述他們如何得到他們的發現。這樣的話,其他心理學家可以重複這個研究以視其是否可以複製這個發現。

(Research is replicable when others can repeat it and get the same results. When psychologists report what they have foud through their research, they also describe in detail how they made theirdiscoveries. This way, other psychologists can repeat the research to see if they can replicable the findings.)

在心理學家做完研究並確定它是可複製的之後,他們發展出理論並轉化理論為鏡卻的假說。假說是將發生於某些情境的預測是可測量的。心理學家使用特別的研究方法測試假說,如自然觀察法、個案研究法、問卷調查法、實驗法等。如果測試無法證實賈說,心理學家就修訂或拒絕原始理論。

(After psychologists do their research and make sure it's replicable, they develop a theory and translate the theory into a precise hypothesis. A hyppthesis is a testable prediction of what will happen given a certain set of conditions. Psychologists test a hypothesis by using a specific research method, such as naturalistic observation, a case study, a survey, or an experiment. If the test does not confirm the hypothesis, the psychologists revises or rejects the original theory.)

 

心理學家如何做科學性研究

(How psychologists do secientific research)

1. 形成假說→2.觀察→3.精練理論→4.發展理論┐

↑--------------------------------------------------┘

(1.Form hypothesis→2.Make observations→3.Refine theory→4.Develop theory┐

 ↑-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------┘)

 

好的理論

(A Good Theory)

好的理論必須做好兩件事:組織合理方式所做的各項觀察,並提供研究者提出明確的假設來驗證理論。

(A good theory must do two things: organize many observations in a logical way and allow researchers to come up with clear predictions to check the theory.)

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